White nose syndrome is killing millions of bats via a contagious fungus – here’s how to stop it

 

White nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans, which grows on the bats’ muzzles (hence the name) and other hairless body parts including wings, and causes skin lesionsP. destructans is psychrophilic, meaning it thrives in cold temperatures between 4℃ and 20℃. This means it affects bats during hibernation.

Continue reading White nose syndrome is killing millions of bats via a contagious fungus – here’s how to stop it

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Expanding the roles of women in STEM

Expanding the roles of women in STEMThe fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), have traditionally attracted more male than female scholars on all academic levels. The disparity of interests between genders can be seen as early as secondary school. The resulting trend is, unsurprisingly, reflected in university applications – STEM disciplines tend to be dominated by male applicants. Additionally, mobile students in STEM fields are far more likely to be male. Today’s blog, from scientist Joanna Bagniewska, explores the reasons female students lose interest in the STEM fields and shares some optimistic insight into how some organisations are working to address this trend. 

Losing interest at an early age

A study conducted in February this year showed that female students report a significant dip in the enjoyment of STEM subjects as they enter teenage years: while half of surveyed girls aged 7-11 considered Maths and Computer Science enjoyable and fun, this proportion dropped to 31% and 36% respectively in respondents aged 11-14. The above finding is coupled with the fact that more than half of teachers (57%) and parents (52%) admit to having made gender stereotypes in relation to STEM.

At university level, even in STEM subjects with a high intake of female undergraduates, there is a concern with retention of students, and ensuring that they do not drop out at any stage of their career. While the number of women in subjects such as biological sciences is high at an undergraduate stage, the proportion decreases at each progression point – postgraduate, postdoctoral, lecturer – leaving very few females at the professorial level.

Institutional biases or individual burdens?

Many explanations have been put forward to account for this disproportion – including institutional biases, implicit and direct discrimination, lack of role models or lack of confidence in the women themselves. However, research published in August shows that women are in fact more resilient than one might expect. Factors such as high school academic preparation, faculty gender ratio, or performance in the core subjects appear to have an equal effect on males and females, in terms of the risk of switching majors. Stereotyping a field as ‘masculine’ also seems to have no profound effect on the women in it. However, while individual factors appear to have no effect, their combination – particularly low grades, gender composition of class and external stereotyping signals – is a strong enough hit to drive women to drop out. It might therefore be worth investigating the ways of making the external environment a bit more ‘female friendly’ on an institutional level.

Creating a female-friendly field

One way of addressing gender inequality in British institutions is the Athena SWAN (Scientific Women’s Academic Network) charter. Founded in 2005, it recognises and celebrates examples of good practice towards the advancement of gender equality in higher education and research. Some of the recognised actions include outreach and mentoring programmes, reducing bias in recruitment, devising flexible and part-time working schemes which ensure career progression or providing better access to childcare. Initially, the programme was limited to STEM subjects; currently it has expanded to include other disciplines.

Similarly, mobility schemes such as the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Fellowship allow women to actively pursue an international career in science. Traditionally, the mobility of female researchers has been lower than that of their male peers, as the career progression of women has often been adjusted to accommodate the needs of the family. However currently, in dual-career households, it is often the higher-earning partner who dictates the mobility strategy. Providing financial independence and promoting equal pay leads female scientists towards a much more international professional life.

We are at a point in history when the tables are turning – women are finding themselves encouraged, supported, and are suddenly beginning to grasp at the opportunities that have thus far been less accessible to them. A diversity of backgrounds, beliefs and opinions is an important contribution to the development of any field – as is retaining the potential of highly qualified employees.

Joanna Bagniewska is a Zoologist, Science Communicator and Teaching Fellow at the University of Reading in the UK. 

The importance of sex in science

My post for Discov-Her, the L’Oreal Foundation blog.

In science, what difference does sex make? Dr. Joanna Bagniewska, ecologist, well-known science communicator and teaching fellow at the University of Reading, is here to explain.

I’m an ecologist – and ecologists talk about sex A LOT. We love to prod the underlying differences between sexes in different species. After all, why should we assume that males and females, which occupy different territories, have different diets and exhibit different behaviours, would be ecologically and evolutionarily identical?

Consequently, in the scientific articles in my field, the sex of study animals is reported on a regular basis. I was very surprised to find out, however, that this attitude is quite different in other disciplines, e.g. in biomedical research.

Until recently, in medical studies, female animals were treated simply as male animals with hormonal fluctuations. Such an oversimplification is, unfortunately, very often inappropriate and insufficient. Just last year a group of international researchers, led by scientists from McGill University, showed that when it comes to pain, not only is there a difference in tolerance and sensitivity between the sexes – there are also fundamental physiological differences in dealing with it. In rodents, the two sexes actually use different immune cells in the spinal cord to process the pain – T cells in females, and microglia in males. Yet, Jeffrey Mogil from McGill reports that only 3 out of 71 scientific articles published in the journal Pain in 2015 confirmed the use of experimental rodents of both sexes; almost 80% used only male animals. Research from UC Berkeley, led by Annaliese Beery, also showed a strong male bias in mammalian research in eight out of ten biological fields, most prominently in neuroscience. The authors suggest that studies focused solely on one sex should clearly indicate it in article titles.

There is a flip side of the coin, too – the sex of the researchers themselves. In 2014, a study led by Robert Sorge, found that mice and rats used in experiments react differently to male and female researchers. When exposed to the scent of male humans, the rodents become very stressed – so much so, that such strong stress acts as an analgesic. What does it mean? Rodents (of both sexes) handled by male researchers may be less sensitive to pain, and, as a consequence, the sex of the experimenter may lead to differences in baselines in behavioural studies, on which further applied research is then founded. Unfortunately, most of the time the sex of the researcher is not reported in publications, making comparisons between studies difficult, if not impossible.

Discoveries such as those mentioned above lead to questions about their future applicability: types of pain medicine developed, dosages trialled in pain studies, and relevance to human subjects. And while the American Congress has introduced the Research for All Act, requiring National Institutes of Health to run clinical trials on both men and women (in… 2015!), there is still a lack of consideration for sex in study animals, primary cells, or even cell lines.

Luckily the idea of gendered innovation, where gender and sex are incorporated into research principles, has been gaining recognition – largely due to the work of Londa Schiebinger of Stanford University. Thanks to this approach, it turned out that osteoporosis – historically considered a predominantly female disease – can have very serious consequences for males; conversely, heart disease is not just a male problem – but is diagnosed differently in females.

So… let’s talk about sex! Particularly in the context of good experimental design.

– Dr. Joanna Bagniewska

Open season for female scientists

My post on the Soapbox Science blog

Because I’m a zoologist working in a rather gender-balanced and female-friendly environment, I have for a long time thought that the discrimination of women in STEM is a largely exaggerated problem. But then it hit me with the force of a charging elephant (the one that’s in the room).

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Turning Brain Drain into Brain Circulation

My post for the Crastina Column

The Crastina Column

For many years Poland has experienced human capital flight, or “brain drain”. But this process is slowly becoming balanced by ”returnees”. The networking and communication skills of young members of the Polish scientific diaspora has played a crucial role. Joanna Bagniewska, zoologist and science disseminator, explains how.

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How do our bodies know when to go to sleep?

A piece I wrote for the British Council Blog prior to FameLab International.

How do our bodies know when it’s night?

In our eyes, there are photoreceptors: cells which can determine the difference between light and darkness. But how do the kidneys, liver or stomach know when it’s dark or light?

During periods of darkness, the photoreceptors in our eyes send a signal to a part of our brain called the pineal gland, which starts the production of melatonin. Melatonin is known as the ‘hormone of the night’. It’s a chemical expression of darkness. It acts as an endocrine hormone, meaning that it’s released into the blood. While circulating in our body, it chemically informs all our organs that it’s dark outside and all body parts should be getting ready to sleep.

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What does the bird say?

A fascinating example of mimicry by the superb lyrebird, Menura novaehollandiae. I have taken this – somewhat shaky – footage in Healesville Sanctuary, Victoria, Australia, in December 2013. It’s the first time I have seen a lyrebird display outside of David Attenborough’s documentaries!

Chain saw, shooting game, camera shutter, kookaburra, car alarm – what else can you hear?
Lyrebird says: “No sunblock!” (an Aussie, after all!)